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Renewable Energy Sources

Renewable energy sources are obtained in nature and have the ability to restore in full, or in part, efficient and environmentally friendly by use of natural or artificially induced process. Thanks to the matter in a closed cycle in biosphere it is realized the principle of obtaining electricity and heat energy, that does not pollute the environment. The principle of environmental protection in energy production and economic development is the basic concept of sustainable development, that gives new level of prosperity.

Renewable energy sources are classified into several basic groups:

  • biogas/metan biomass, pellets, briquettes, biofuel (biodiesel - I, II and III generation bioethanol - and second generation, biomethanol, helio-agriculture, biobutane, biopropane and biohydrogen),
  • geothermal energy,
  • energy of water (hydro)-HE-hydro and mini hydro MHE, energy of sea waves, energy, tidal energy, 
  • wind energy,
  • solar (photovoltaic) energy and thermal energy from solar - CSP systems.


About 16% of global final energy consumption comes from renewable resources, with 10% of all energy from traditional biomass, mainly used for heating, and 3.4% from hydroelectricity. New renewables (small hydro, modern biomass, wind, solar, geothermal, and biofuels) accounted for another 3% and are growing very rapidly as technology develops. The share of renewables in electricity generation is around 19%, with 16% of electricity coming from hydroelectricity and 3% from new renewables.

While many renewable energy projects are large-scale, renewable technologies are also suited to rural and remote areas, where energy is often crucial in human development. As of 2011, small solar PV systems provide electricity to a few million households, and micro-hydro configured into mini-grids serves many more. Over 44 million households use biogas made in household-scale digesters for lighting and/or cooking, and more than 166 million households rely on a new generation of more-efficient biomass cookstoves. It is said that renewable energy has the ability to lift the poorest nations to new levels of prosperity. Carbon neutral and negative fuels can store and transport renewable energy through existing natural gas pipelines and be used with existing transportation infrastructure, displacing fossil fuels, and reducing greenhouse gases.

Climate change concerns, coupled with high oil prices and increasing government support, are driving increasing renewable energy legislation, incentives and commercialization. New government spending, regulation and policies helped the industry weather the global financial crisis better than many other sectors. If RES are implemented in any indistrial sector that sector shows economic benefits and tendency of growing business. RES are the only energy business that shows period of repay of investment funds with less than 8 years.

   

Renewable energy flows involve natural phenomena such as sunlight, wind, tides, plant growth, and geothermal heat. Renewable energy is derived from natural processes that are replenished constantly. In its various forms, it derives directly from the sun, or from heat generated deep within the earth. Included in the definition is electricity and heat generated from solar, wind, ocean, hydropower, biomass, geothermal resources, and biofuels and hydrogen are derived from renewable resources. Renewable energy resources and significant opportunities for energy efficiency exist over wide geographical areas, in contrast to other energy sources, which are concentrated in a limited number of countries. 

       

Renewable energy replaces conventional fuels in four distinct areas: electricity generation, hot water/space heating, motor fuels, and rural (off-grid) energy services:

  • Power generation. Renewable energy provides 19% of electricity generation worldwide. Renewable power generators are spread across many countries, and wind power alone already provides a significant share of electricity in some areas:  40% in the northern German state of Schleswig-Holstein, and 20% in Denmark. Some countries get most of their power from renewables, including Iceland (100%), Norway (98%), Brazil (86%), Austria (62%), New Zealand (65%), and Sweden (54%).
  • Heating. Solar hot water makes an important contribution to renewable heat in many countries, most notably in China, which now has 70% of the global total (180 GWth). Worldwide, total installed solar water heating systems meet a portion of the water heating needs of over 70 million households. The use of biomass for heating continues to grow as well. In Sweden, national use of biomass energy has surpassed that of oil. Direct geothermal for heating is also growing rapidly.
  • Transport fuels. Renewable biofuels have contributed to a significant decline in oil consumption in the United States since 2006. The 93 billion liters of biofuels produced worldwide in 2009 displaced the equivalent of an estimated 68 billion liters of gasoline, equal to about 5% of world gasoline production

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